I'm fairly new, and I'm wondering why discussion of clock discipline algorithms is off-topic for Stack Overflow -- clock discipline is very much a programming and algorithms problem.
GPS is indeed an algorithmic problem. Whether the question relates to a programming challenge that the OP is currently facing is another matter.
This is what it says in the FAQ... "You should only as practical, answerable questions about problems you currently face." A general question about how GPS algorithms work doesn't really fit into this category.
Hint: If the question does not involve computer code in some way, it may be off-topic.
In contrast, questions about algorithms that programmers use to solve programming problems (traversal of binary trees, for example) are almost always on-topic.
I personally think the question is fine for Stack Overflow, as I can clearly see how the algorithm might be related to software development. There are many questions that get asked on Stack Overflow that are far more off-topic (and much lower quality) than this one.
The question close voters should ask themselves is this: "Does the presence of the question actively harm the site, or make the Internet a worse place?"
If you were trying to fix your broken code or algorithm for clock synchronization in your embedded Arduino chip, then the question may be well received.
The problem is that your question is not specific to a problem you actually have. Your question in it's current form can best be answered with a Wikipedia article, or a book, or by Google.