The description of the Student badge says: "Asked first question with at least one up vote".
When I look at this profile, I notice this user has received upvotes for his first question, but no badge.
It seems to me that the upvote was long enough ago that the badge script should have awarded him a badge.
So I guess it's because this user had a negative score. Should the description of the badge read "Asked first question with a score of at least 1"?