I have a question to which I have assigned a bounty. I want to break the question up into smaller ones and close the original as I think this will be clearer and more useful to other users. The question currently has no answers. Will I still lose the bounty?
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Yes, there is no way to recoup reputation that you have offered as a bounty.
Moderators can refund a bounty. They are only supposed to do that in exceptional circumstances. “I didn't get good enough answers” is not a cause for refund, otherwise bounties would mean nothnig.
If the bounty is recent, and you do repost a question and set an equal bounty on the new question (or several bounties spread over several parts, totaling the same amount), then it might be acceptable for a moderator to refund the bounty. You would have a moral obligation to spend the bounty again.
I don't think a refund is needed here though. I suggest that you edit your question down to the most important part, and leave the question open and the bounty running. Post the extra questions independently. Or, perhaps better (depending on how broad the question currently is), emphasize the most important part of the question, but leave everything; then, if even with the bounty you only get a partial answer, tailor your question to the answers you've given, and ask the rest as follow-up questions.