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About 5% to 20% of relevant papers found by Google Scholar point to IP-addresses. How do you link to such scientific papers?

StackExchange wrongly claims that such links are invalid and prevents saving the posting.

While there might be some issues with dead links, not being able to link to a significant part of scientific publications is a major setback.

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why do 20% of google scholar links point to IP addresses? Is the state of higher education in the world really this bad? – Jeff Atwood May 31 '12 at 7:51
While I have encountered academic sites under a plain IP address without a proper domain name, I doubt that the 20% figure is accurate. And I'm anyway a fan of using DOIs, with an optional link to a freely available version of the paper. – Mad Scientist May 31 '12 at 8:09
There are a few security information sites which also do not have a DNS record - so being able to accept an IP address could be useful. – Rory Alsop May 31 '12 at 8:50
I performed a dozen different queries on various terms and couldn't find a single IP-only result. While I'm sure there are articles out there on websites that don't have domain names, I can't find any evidence to suggest it's at all prevalent. Can you provide a couple examples of Google Scholar search queries that produce IP-only links? – user149432 May 31 '12 at 9:11
Google Scholar, not Google Scholar, the issue still holds: IP adresses. – Matsemann May 31 '12 at 10:12
where is the science, can you at least provide some samples? ip address only links are bad news and die 95% of the time – waffles May 31 '12 at 10:16
20% doesn't seem right even for the searches that you give in your examples. – Noah Snyder Jun 2 '12 at 21:48

An answer on "how to": You can take a reroute through an URL-shortener.

For instance, you can use My url,, redirects to

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This makes the links more fragile. – Kevin Reid May 31 '12 at 16:27
@Kevin, how much more fragile can IP-only links get? – Kirk Woll May 31 '12 at 17:16
Or or – Dynamic Jun 2 '12 at 20:58
@dynamic I strongly do not recommend anything other than Google for shortening. I expect Google will be around for 50 years. furly and bitly, I have zero confidence. – Jeff Atwood Jun 2 '12 at 21:58
@JeffAtwood I see what you mean. Just a few recommendations. I wasn't thinking into the future :P – Dynamic Jun 2 '12 at 22:06
To be fair, they don't have to be around for 50 yrs... only as long as StackExchange is, which they most certainly will :) – Lorem Ipsum Jun 2 '12 at 22:07
@yoda doubtful, unless they creative commons their URL databases. Do they? – Jeff Atwood Jun 2 '12 at 23:03
@LoremIpsum, Even when SE dies or go bankrupt, the data still lives in public databases that are mirrored and can be mirrored across the entire world. Corporations no matter how rich, are headed by people. Humans are fragile: it takes less than the "reformed thinking" or "nuclear disaster" of a few top officers of Google to collapse the whole corporation. 50 yrs? Ha, I'm amazed by the technology and billions Google possesses, but no surprise to me even if it collapses next year. Who had expected Alexander the Great to fall? – Pacerier Sep 24 '14 at 16:04

For some of your examples you can easily work out what url to use. For example, the third one is also available at In order to work that out, I just typed in the IP address and saw where it pointed and used google.

(The next one I tried, your first example, wasn't as straightforward because it's an FTP site.)

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You could link a google scholar query that gives the paper as the top result, instead of linking to the actual paper? For example Herold et al, 2008. This might actually be better and more stable than linking to a file on the author's page at their current institution.

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