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I was recently question banned and now have been unbanned. I'm guessing that the reason for the ban is that I deleted two of my questions myself. At the time, I was a newbie — I still am one now — and did not know the proper way to ask questions. As Nicol Bolas pointed out, users get banned because
The person is rather immature. They don't really know any better and aren't interested in being corrected by others. This typically afflicts the young, though admittedly there are some surprisingly immature netcitizens out there.
The person is ignorant. They don't know enough about what they're talking about to be able to ask actual questions from the community. Them getting question-banned generally requires repeated attempts to engage the community in their ignorance, so some degree of immaturity or pig-headedness is often a factor.
The person is simply a buffoon.
The person isn't a native English speaker.
In my case, I am just a student of computer science, and I am also from a non-English-speaking country. I should at least be notified that deletion of my own questions can lead to a question ban.
I deleted my questions because I thought they would not come in handy to others. Jeff Atwood argues that this should lead to bans because there are users who
ask, then delete and ask again so their question would go to the top of the pile and get answered more rapidly [and] remove 'evidence' of asking many low quality questions.
As you can see, neither of these was a reason I deleted my questions.
Another thing that I would like to mention, that he also mentioned in the same answer, is that
Self-deletes already don't matter, provided they are self-deleted after at least 30 days.
There's some irony here. If I do not delete my questions immediately, they get enough negative votes for the system to ban my account!
So the only option left is to edit the question. But I've found that people love to cast down-votes, and sometimes it looks irresponsible. Other than a few good users, they don't even explain why they down-voted!
And like Brad Larson commented,
downvoters are not currently notified as to changes in the questions they have voted on.
Here's what happened to one of my questions. After I posted the question, it immediately got seven or eight down-votes. Nobody responded when I asked why it was getting down-voted. I think that the system should ask down-voters to explain their votes and provide a warning to users attempting to delete their own questions.
Also, people who down-vote a question should be notified if the question is edited, because if they take on the responsibility of marking a question unhelpful, they should carry the responsibility to up-vote it again if it becomes eligible.
EDIT: Another irony is that moderators suggested giving valuable answers, saying that when they get up-voted, question bans can be lifted. I think the people who ask questions here mostly do not know answers; that is why they ask. How can I, being a student, answer like a professional? I'm afraid, because answers can also get down-votes!