I wanted to know if closing a question contributes towards people not being able to ask questions. Much like, if your questions get a lot of negative votes/ down votes you are not allowed to ask questions for a while till you get some up votes or get the heuristics right. So if my question is closed, does that mean that it contributes towards it?
Yes, closed questions do seem to contribute. In fact, it is somewhat subtly implied in the exact link users with a ban receive when they try to perform an action for which they have been banned.
Under "How do I avoid getting a question ban?" it states:
Based on this we can most likely assume that closed questions do factor in to the decision to ban or not.
The same general rules also apply for Meta SO. However, it seems the boundaries here are not as strict as on the main sites. The fact that downvotes on Meta are often used to indicate disagreement for example (rather than necessarily a bad question) would mean that users could rapidly end up being banned were we to apply the same rules, even though they really shouldn't be.
The exact boundaries are however unknown to most of us.