Is there a period after which the question can not be deleted? Similarly for upvoted questions and answers. Maybe for deleted questions assign a unique hash code. Thus we can reread in the future (usually for the author and for those who marked as a favorite (and/or upvoted)).
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No, questions can be deleted at any time, there is no period of time whereby a question is locked.
Questions can be deleted for a number of reasons:
Unfortunately there is no way to ensure they question is always available I'm afraid. Older ones are less likely to be deleted than newer ones, particularly if they have been upvoted a fair number of times so that may give you a hint as to the future of those questions, but anything can happen in the future.
No, marking anything as a favourite does not prevent deletion. And if you don't have sufficient rep (>10k) you will not be able to see the question once it has been deleted.
No there's no guarantee, if a question is closed it might get deleted at any time.
If you feel that a closed question should not be deleted, then work towards getting it re-opened. If you don't see any way of getting it re-opened and want to somehow preserve it, then do so off site.