After two days I have earned some reputation on Stack Overflow but on http://careers.stackoverflow.com/ my reputation is still 71 and not getting updated however my Stack Overflow reputation is 96 right now.
Since rep should update once a day, and you stated it's been two days, I went ahead and reopened the question.
Go ahead and check your account now. I forced the system to perform a manual sync. You should be good to go now.
This was the same issue that was fixed here: Why isn't Meta Stack Exchange available on Careers? - so I'll paste pretty much the same answer:
There is a regular job which runs to sync your Stack Exchange accounts with your Careers profile. We had a bug where it was possible for some accounts to not get updated for a while, as we weren't actually prioritising the least-recently-synced accounts to get synced first.
This is fixed now - when syncing Stack Exchange accounts, we now prioritise those which are most stale (i.e. which haven't synced for the longest). This means no more time warps and everybody's stats should be reasonably up-to-date.