In How to make money with my programming? I gave a tongue-in-cheek answer to a question I knew was inevitably going to be closed. After being surprised to find a Populist badge for another answer I had forgotten about, I went back through and cataloged all the badges I have the potential to get.
The question currently has a score of -5. If my answer makes it to +20, will the gold badge be awarded, even though the question was closed?
Perhaps this is generalizable to will badges be awarded for triggers on closed questions?