Things that would prevent bounty link from showing:
you already have an active bounty on any question (only one is allowed)
you lack sufficient rep to start a bounty (100 is the minimum)
the question is not yet 2 days old (the minimum age)
When I log in as my test account with 178 rep -- our old pal Eggs McLaren -- I do see the 'start a bounty' link on that question, so I can't reproduce this.
I suspect you already have an active bounty in the system on someone else's questions?
edit: I see -- you started a bounty, then deleted the question you had the bounty on while the bounty was still active. It was this question. I cleared the bounty which deletes the bounty vote.