Since this feature-request, if you get a new badge you will see a notification in the alert bar saying "You've earned the [badge name] badge for [question/answer link]". I like this.
However, if you earn two or more badges, you just see "You've earned [badge name] and [n] other badges."
But as far as I can tell there's no way to find out what those badges were awarded for. You can click on the badge in activity and recent activity, but IMHO that's not very intuitive. I'd like the question the badge was awarded for to be displayed in the following places.
If you click your envelope and look at the badges tab:
If you go to your profile and click the activity tab: