The idea is to "award" temporal anti-badges for bad behaviour, which will be removed when some kind of penance has been done. [edit One could even include side effect which activate some constraints.] I'll post some examples as answers, feel free to add more.
edit Jeff replied
I think this may be fine for training a dog who actually should accept you as alpha male and desire your attention, however some people behave "wrong" not because they want attention but simply because a) they don't know better or b) they are indeed mischievous. While group a) should be easily correctable, group b) will take being ignored as sign that they are free to cause
</dramatization> as much as they desire. Certainly, they can get banned for that, but anti-badges would at least provide means to put someone on parole.
Consider this suggestion as user-ban's little brother