In reading some of the previous questions, I did not have a clear understanding regarding the official SO stance regarding other people adding [homework] to questions which are manifestly homework. Under what circumstances is it acceptable to retag a question as homework?
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No, don't use homework unless you're the OP or the OP explicitly states that a question is about homework. Will's thoughts on this issue are pretty good. In short, he says that the tag adds a lot of noise with little value. I would even say that his policy of not deleting "is this homework" comments doesn't go far enough, because they're often thinly veiled "I'm better than you and your dumb question" comments, and therefore implicitly rude.
So what value does the tag have? As Jeff says, it usually indicates topics covered in CS 101. That's a suboptimal tagging arrangement. I've seen self-learners ask easy but valid questions only to be immediately mobbed by retags and comments. I nearly asked a grad school homework question once, and the only reason I didn't is that I found the answer on another SO post. If we want a tag for CS 101 topics, we should create cs101 instead of abusing homework.
I'd say it's acceptable to retag, when -- just like for other tags -- you think that homework applies. That is: use your honest judgment.
In my mind, it's often easy to sniff out homework questions.