I have account on SO from last 5 months and my badges are not being updated, even though I have visited the site for more than 30 days.
EDIT:Screenshot included in response to your comments.
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I believe the 24-hour periods which count as days here are based on either GMT or UTC. Also, just to make sure, you did see the badge specifies 30 consecutive days? So every day for 30 continuous days you visited the Stack Overflow site (and logged in)?
EDIT: As for the Electorate badge, please read the badge descriptions carefully.
Voted on 600 questions and 25% or more of total votes are on questions
You've only voted on about 350 questions so far.