Since June 2013, deleted questions and answers
that were posted in the past 60 days, can be seen using the "deleted recent questions" and "deleted recent answers" links on the questions and answers tabs in your user profile. (In February 2020, this was expanded to posts deleted in the past 60 days, including those posted more than 60 days ago.)
For older deleted questions, if you really want to see them again, you might be able to use this workaround to find them via your reputation history. If that doesn't work, ask a ♦ moderator; we can see your deleted questions, and undelete them if appropriate (i.e. deleted in error).
(Non-moderator 10k users cannot see their deleted questions from their profile page either, though they can search for them by using