Is it possible to configure my account in Stack Overflow so that I would receive an email when my question is answered?
If you hang around for just a little bit longer you won't need an email notification :P On the popular tags, php, jquery, etc...answers are given within seconds of posting... Gone are the days when one would post a question online and only go back a few days later to check if someone has answered. We have a very active community that cruises the question lists looking for stuff to answer.
Other than that I do not believe that this functionality exists.
You can opt to receive email notifications in an option from your profile - https://meta.stackexchange.com/questions/91312/email-notification-for-questions however as Jeff said, these emails are not instant and have a certain delay -
...emails will arrive 24-48 hours later. Emails are for people who don't have time to come to the site proper.
If you'd like a work around you could simply subscribe to the RSS feed for the question (link is at the bottom of the page) and set up an RSS to Email service so that you get an email for every update to the RSS feed.
Not enough jQuery you say? try this -