On balance, making close votes more public doesn't seem like a problem.
First, note the answer Anna linked to about the limitations of how public these votes are: You can only trace the votes going from user to question (i.e., you can see what questions a given user voted to close, but not which users voted to close a given question), and you only see close votes cast through the review system.
Was the previous temporary anonymity even a feature or mere happenstance?
I haven't seen anything suggesting that the previous anonymity was an intended feature, so I'm assuming that it wasn't a design criterion. (Though I'm happy for someone to point me towards any material on the matter.)
The benefit of anonymity:
Anonymous close votes prevent angering users before a clear consensus is reached. If I'm the only one who ever votes to close a particular question, my close vote eventually expires and no one's the wiser, saving me from facing anyone's wrath. If I vote to close and others do too, the questioner can see that it was a group decision and not just a lone person acting out. Group decisions are easier for people to accept as valid.
The benefit of public votes:
Closure is not meant to be about the relative merits of a question like voting is, it's supposed to be janitorial. Whether a question is a duplicate, off topic, not constructive, or too localized should be an objective assessment based on the site's rules that most people can agree with. In practice there are differences of opinion, but more public voting can only help bring those differences to light sooner allowing the community to discuss and determine the correct grounds for closure. Closure is an action that people are accountable for, and greater transparency fosters that accountability.
Temporary anonymity also just seems plain weird. When someone casts a close vote, they know that the vote will be public once the question's closed, why should it make such a difference if it's public somewhat sooner? Other actions are very clearly divided into completely public or completely private, why should there also be a third quasi-private category? A clear division public and private actions is simpler and easier to justify.
Finally, there's significant support for making close votes completely public. Way back in '09 there was a proposal to make close votes appear in recent activity. It's currently at 31 points, with no votes or even arguments against it. Obviously it wasn't implemented, and the status quo has ossified somewhat since then, but this tempoarary anonymity is clearly not some longheld and cherished principle of the community.
Given all that, this slight increase in close vote transparency seems unproblematic.