I notice that I have been hit by 3 down votes. Clearly some people do not like my ideas and I would like to know which ideas people did not like so I can learn from my mistakes.
Is there a way to tell where the down votes were applied?
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There is already a uservoice request that downvotes require comments. Of course, it would be easy to type in garbage for the comment, but at least it would be a prompt.
Using your reputation page you can see which questions/answers got downvotes, but of course that doesn't explain why they were voted down. When that gets too unwieldy, you can use a bit of hackery to get the JSON showing the reputation gained/lost during a particular time period, but I wouldn't worry about that just yet. (Hopefully by the time it becomes an issue for you we may have better tools. I'm still trying to work out exactly what would be useful.) Other answers have pointed to the external website explaining the "delta since your last visit" too.
Personally, I ignore it most of the time - if someone isn't willing to explain why they don't like an answer, it can't be that important. If they add a comment, I can explain my reasoning, improve my answer - or just delete it if it's flat-out wrong. It's always worth remembering this when you apply a downvote yourself - put yourself in the place of the person receiving it, and think of the benefit of adding a comment vs just downvoting :)
The saddest (happiest?) part is when they downvote you and leave a comment, but their downvote reason is flat out wrong :-)
At least that's better than no comment, but it highlights the possiblity of wrong-reason downvoting, which I'd venture to say it happens more than we'd like to.
Also, there's the malicious downvoting, where people downvote you to get their answers above yours, that will never be explained in a comment.
So, the sanest path is to just ignore no-comment downvotes.
No, there isn't, at least not directly.
In your profile on the 'Reputation' tab, you have this nice graph of your rep development. The shaded part shows which time frame is taken into account for the list to the right of it. You can define this are yourself by marking it with your mouse, the list will be updated accordingly.
Now, assuming that you are mostly interested in current downvotes, you can just mark the last two or three days and see where you got the most downvotes.
Sometimes (sadly, not very often), people will add a comment to your answer, explaining their downvote. So I usually go to see my responses. If somebody left a useful comment, I follow up on that. If not, I ignore the downvote. (Well, at least I try to. But sometimes my ego gets in the way...)