Will there be new badges introduced over time? and retire some badges? What is the procedure to do so? Is there a public voting system to introduce/retire badges?
New badges appear from time-to-time, and some actually change their definition, but not very frequently. See, for example, the list of Recent feature changes to Stack Exchange:
- 2013-01-10: Informed
- 2012-09-21: Custodian, Reviewer & Steward
- 2012-06-08: Caucus & Constituent
- 2012-02-07: Research Assistant
- 2011-11-08: Reviewer badge has been changed to a silver badge with the requirements increased to 1000 reviews and acting on at least 200
- 2011-11-07: Reviewer
- 2011-08-24: Analytical (retired)
- 2011-08-22: Marshal
- 2011-08-15: Excavator & Archeologist
- 2011-08-06: Proofreader
- 2011-07-07: Synonymizer
- 2011-05-09: Vox Populi
...to name a few. These are not introduced by voting, but with site changes.