Fair warning - i have some suggestions, as I'm not sure your question is unsalvageable, but I'm not sure - I'm not a real dev. :)
If I knew more, I'd try to edit it for you, but I think at least part of the problem is that rather than focusing on a specific problem, like:
How can I prevent errors in one function from corrupting the functionality of others (including ones that were supposed to be validating the first one)?
You're focusing on what sounds like a super open-ended discussion about possible solutions, unfairly paraphrased as:
I had this one idea, but I'm not sure if it's good, and I'm open to tons of others!
It's good to include the thoughts/efforst you've put in, but you don't want to make them solicitations for thoughts, counter-ideas, etc. Instead, you can simply make them a modifier to your (ideally clearer) question - a way to show what you've considered so far:
In trying to solve this myself, it seems to me like the best approach likely involves breaking up the js in some way to insulate shared functions from others' failure, but I can't figure out how to implement it.
At the end of the day, I'm not sure that would bring your question into scope, but it might.