I am still pretty new in Stack Overflow.
In ended up in this discussion with a "veteran", and I would like to understand if I acted correctly. https://stackoverflow.com/a/11182260/2436175
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I certainly don't think you acted incorrectly. You weren't rude and provided rationale to your arguments.
It does look like the downvote was anger driven, but whatever the spark, you provided a legitimate reason otherwise and downvotes don't need an explanation.
The other poster, though a little more brash, hasn't acted incorrectly either. He's explained why he doesn't agree with you and reserves the right not to change his answer.
That doesn't stop you or anyone else from editing the answer if you feel it can be improved. Just make sure it's a valid edit.
In short - all posts, regardless of age, should conform to current Stack Overflow guidelines.
But we can't exactly 'force' a user to edit a post. Though a comment and/or downvote should be a nudge for them to do so.
You could edit it yourself, although don't be surprised to have your suggested edit declined as a radical change - assuming you'd make a valid edit, there might still be users who thinks the edit changes too much - not much we can do about that. This will change when you get the required 2k reputation to edit without approval - then we expect you to know what's a good edit and what isn't and you're free to perform such edits without fear of having it declined.
Regarding my personal opinion on this specific issue - the question is asking how to cast
OutputArray. The answer showed some code indicating that you don't need to cast it (ideally it would also say this and provide a reference, but that's not downvote-worthy in this case in my book - although I was sort of on the fence with this one, and I'm not saying it shouldn't be in your book) - in that sense it sufficiently answered the question and isn't in dire need to be edited.
I'm not entirely sure why that user used the age of the post in their reasoning for why it shouldn't be edited - I'd expect a 'veteran' to know better, although perhaps they just didn't feel like coming up with a more convincing reason.
But I agree with the other answer - you certainly have a right to your opinion (and I'm not one to say 'you're wrong' here - it certainly feels borderline), and to downvote the post for the reasons mentioned, and I don't see anything particularly wrong with the way you approached it - kudos for providing a link and quoting from it - most users, even those with tons of reputation don't do either of these in their comments.