I put the default identicon as my profile picture aka avatar. I have also uploaded my photo and it is part of the uploaded pictures.
Is a Moderator able to see my uploaded pictures?
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You have to assume that everything is logged somewhere - how long that's retained and who has access to it depends a lot on the specific data and scenario.
As a more practical rule, you should figure that moderators can see anything you can see when viewing your profile - the only exception I'm aware of there is your votes which are yours alone.