I am, for the purposes of this answer, disregarding the cases of those who may face religious or political persecution for their participation on sites which fundamentally disagree with the sanctions put forth by governments or other bodies of power.
I'm also disregarding interests in internet privacy--there are lots of reasons someone might want to keep their identity secret in such a global space, but they relate to the internet as a whole and not just Stack Exchange.
You bring up some interesting points here, but I'm not sure the "problem" of sorts is identified correctly. As such, I'm not sure the risks you're listing are really relevant.
- getting flak/fired for using it while on the clock
I feel like the solution here is pretty straight-forward. Don't use Stack Exchange at inappropriate times. Sure, it could cause trouble if you did use it during work and you weren't using it for work. But that's best to avoid regardless.
- not getting an interview because you asked a trivial question
I live in a sheltered and idealistic world. That said, I like to think it's more or less reasonable to think that people I'll give my time to respect that I don't know everything about everything.
To that point, I don't think asking a so-called "trivial" question is a bad thing, if you ask it well. I'm a .NET developer, but I've wanted to use Python a couple times in my life. At least for the first of those, I probably had to look up how to create a list in Python. That's pretty trivial, but you have to start somewhere.
If I was a manager looking to hire you, and if I was the type of person to look up your Stack Exchange profile in that process, and I saw that you asked a trivial question, that wouldn't scare me. Maybe if you asked it yesterday and were claiming to be an expert today, but that's still aside my point.
What would scare me is if you had very poorly phrased questions. If you ask a lot of "here's code why no work?" questions, that's a red-flag. But, as we know, we shouldn't be posting those anyway.
- not getting an interview because your rushed to get the first right answer and your code was sloppy/ not production worthy
This is the same point as before. Don't post sloppy code. If you create an account without your name associated and continue on to post sloppy code, that's just a bad use of Stack Exchange, and you have bigger problems going on.
Yeah, we all make mistakes, I've certainly posted sloppy code before on here, but the key is to make sure you fix or delete those mistakes as soon as you can, and if you do that in a calm and collected way, again, I like to think anyone who matters will understand.
- not getting an interview because your question to answer ratio is too poor (I see a lot of accounts that only answer questions or only ask questions so i assume this is for the "ratio"?
This one made me think a bit, I'll admit. I don't think anyone will get upset at you for having too many answers and not enough questions, but I can imagine the other way around being an issue.
I, personally, as a business owner and development lead, would, again, look to the quality of the posts rather than their type, but I can imagine others who might not be so understanding.
Ultimately, I think the "risk" of sharing your real name is manufactured.
I'm proud of the posts, most of them at least, I've made across the Stack Exchange network, programming-related and otherwise, and I'd be happy to have a hiring manager review them.
If your posts are such that a potential employer would be scared away, the problem there is most likely the result of a completely different, and indeed more severe, issue.
Beyond that, again, I live with a pretty sheltered view of the world, and it's possible that employers aren't so understanding. But that's really outside the scope of this question, since I couldn't begin to assess for you what other employers or hiring managers are thinking.