Writing a question that is later closed is not a good thing. Enough of these will lead to a question ban.
Two things that mitigate against a question ban, are upvoted answers, and upvoted other questions.
What about upvotes on the closed question itself? And does this change if the question is later deleted?
On the other hand, if a closed question receives a large number of downvotes, might deleting it be the "lesser evil?" The reason I ask is because "sanctions" (e.g. lighter text) are imposed after three downvotes. Also, there is a "peer pressure" badge for deleting a three downvote question.
From the above, I conclude that for some downvote number X, above three, deleting the question (and removing the X downvotes) will incur a lesser penalty than leaving it on the site. Is this, in fact, true?