I've been awarded a taxonomist badge on SO for retagging 59 questions with a new tag. This action was considered abusive, and the tag was removed, along with my badge from the 'Badges' section on my profile page. However, the badge still appears next to my user name in the upper section of the screen, and when I search my user name in the users tab... it shows 1 'silver' 11 'bronze'. Is this a bug?
ChrisF is right, the next time you get a badge, it recalculates the denormalized badge count field.
What random is referring to is a little bit different, since your badge was actually removed, not just attached to a now-deleted question, which is the more typical case.
Think of it like a gentle hint of the badge debt you'll have to repay. Right now, you're in the hole for one silver badge.
When your next silver badge comes along, the number won't increase, but correct out.