Deleted questions only get soft-deleted. They are not shown anymore, (but accessible to >10k-rep-users). Thus, they should be available via the data dump.
How would you access, say, what-stack-overflow-is-not?
It was alleged that this question is a duplicate of can-some-metadata-about-deleted-posts-be-included-in-data-se.
The duplicate-origin contains the information (in the question, it has no answers) that the data dump does not contain deleted questions, yet unofficial-stack-overflow-deleted-question-archive-now-available offers deleted SO questions. Thus, it might be possible.