TL;DR - it's not possible to find the suggested edit if you don't have 2k reputation. However, if you want past suggested edits on a specific post (about a week old and more) then it's possible.
Worth to mention, that there is a pending feature request asking to add a link to the review itself, that will do what you ask for (probably even for <2k users), but it's still not done.
When you will get to 2k reputation, i.e. gain the Edit Questions And Answers and Access Review Queues privileges, the "edit" link won't be disabled when there is a pending suggested edit, but rather look like this:
Then clicking it will open the suggested edit review in a pop-over.
When you will get to 10k reputation, you can see the full history of suggested edits (users with less than 10k will see only their own reviews) so you can find past suggestions on a post by searching those pages. There is even a userscript that can help finding them, here.
Last but not least, Data Explorer can give everyone (regardless of reputation) access to the past suggested edits, only downside is the data there is not live, but rather being updated every Monday. I have forked a query originally written by rene, that gets a post ID and returns all past suggestions on that post, including their status (approved or rejected) and time of approval/rejection. For example this will return an old rejected edit that was suggested on this answer.
Finding a post ID crash course
For a question it's easy, it appears in the URL:
For answer, first click the "share" link under the desired answer, then the ID is in there:
Note: The query on Data Explorer is for Stack Overflow, don't forget to switch sites if you want to see history of suggested edits on post in a different site: