If I edit a question, do the users who previously viewed the question get an alert/notification?
The only user who always gets a notification is the original author of the post - but only if the edit is significant or has been made to a code block.
Any user who has bookmarked (marked as favourite) the question will see a "recent activity" notification on their profile, but nothing appears in their inbox.
The only way other editors would know is if they were actively monitoring the post themselves.
No, they don't. Only the author of the question will get a notification (if the change is substantial enough; correcting a spelling error usually isn't).