If I accept an answer in my question, how can I retract my proposal (and accept another)?
Furthermore, will I lose any reputation retracting answer acception? Will the answerer lose any reputation with his answer being retracted?
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Do the same procedure you have done to accept answer.
Click on the Green Tick Mark again and the answer become unaccepted.
If you just want to accept another answer,
You can simply accept the answer by clicking the tick mark.
Then the old-accepted answer become unaccepted and the new one become accepted.
is there any reputation change in unaccepting an answer?
Yes there is.
When you accept an answer, you will get +2 ( a total of 2 reputation per question. won't get for changing accepted answers.)
When you unaccept answer, you will loss the 2 reputation.
Just click the checkmark again to unaccept. Or click it on somebody else's answer to move it.
As per the tooltip on the accept button (you'll see it if you hover over it with your mouse):
Click to accept this answer because it solved your problem or was the most helpful in finding your solution (click again to undo)
Or (if you've already clicked it):
Click to undo acceptance of this answer