What happens to a user when he/she spreads malware by whatever method, through any Stack Exchange sites?
By malicious, I mean links or download links (and the download contains) malware?
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You flag em - maybe with a custom flag.
A moderator reviews it and decides whether to simply remove the link or take further action. It's one of those super rare, edge cases so the exact response depends on the severity of what it is.
In theory if it's a user previously in good standing, we'd probably try to work out if it was a honest mistake (then no foul, outside potential, private embarrassment when its pointed out), an account compromise (in which case the appropriate steps will be taken). Otherwise if the account is created specifically for that — in which case it will be nuked appropriately as any other spammer would be.
It's not quite a 'simple' thing so do give as much information as you can when flagging.