Looks like the “Census” badge name and its description are not used in localized engine. I.e. as far as I see all sentences have been translated at least two months ago, but not used on site. E.g. screenshots from Stack Overflow in Russian:
I’m pretty sure that same behavior occurs for other non-English sites. Other sites (pt, es, ja) have full or partial translation for this badge, hence current bug report should be moved to ruSO.meta probably, but I still can’t understand the reason why translation is not used from Transifex.
P.S. apologizes for using survey tag on MSE.