This is a multipart question regarding bounties, votes, and something
I don't quite understand. On one post I made, I was awarded a bounty
(by Community), and had two upvotes on my answer.
The author issued a bounty on their own question and didn't award the bounty before the bounty expired. What did happen was that because you submitted your answer after the bounty was started, and your answer received 2 upvotes from the community, you were awarded half the bounty automatically. This is of course due to the way bounties work.
If you do not award your bounty within 7 days (plus the grace period),
the highest voted answer created after the bounty started with a
minimum score of 2 will be awarded half the bounty amount (or the full
amount, if the answer is also accepted). If two or more eligible
answers have the same score (their scores are tied), the oldest answer
is chosen. If there's no answer meeting those criteria, no bounty is
awarded to anyone.
What is a bounty? How can I start one?
OP says I got there too late. Not sure what context he is referring to
in that regard
It is a reference to the fact, an answer which was submitted before your answer, actually solved their problem. This is evident based on the fact, their second question makes mention of the fact the code in the answer works. The author of the question didn't accept the answer. You are not required to accept an answer to your question. You are also not required to award a bounty, you can allow the community decide, which answer should receive it.
Clearly it was worth something or the bounty would not have been
It was only awarded because 2 users upvoted your answer.
Why can we still downvote something that is clearly relevant to the
context and worth something within the scope of the question?
The question is not locked, so the question and any answers submitted to a non-protected question can be voted on.