No, it is not.
In Database schema documentation for the public data dump and SEDE you'll find the answer with all the tables. The tables that are in italics can also be found in the Datadump. The rest is only available in SEDE.
In the API you'll find for some datatypes more data (for example reputation history).
For your specific sub questions:
- Could I get the user reputation as of a particular date (say Jan 1, 2017) from the data dump (and only the data dump)
You can get close to the same result as offered on Determining user's reputation as of particular date? but you have to replace Suggestededits (as that table is missing) with something like this
select min(ph.creationdate) creationdate
, min(ph.postid) as [Post Link]
, min(ph.userid) as [User Link]
from posthistory ph
inner join votes v
on ph.postid = v.postid
and ph.creationdate between v.creationdate
and dateadd(d, 1, v.creationdate)
where posthistorytypeid in (4,5,6,7,8,9) -- edit / rollback
and v.votetypeid = 16 -- suggestededit appected vote
group by revisionguid
This is inaccurate if more then one user edit a post on the same date but it is the best you can do within the Data Dump
Even with all those tables you still have an estimate, not 100% accurate reputation calculation.
- Could I get all user profile data that's publicly available from the API?
Let us match the users table vs User Type:
Users Table User type
This means you're missing the following fields that are in the User type in the API but are not in SEDE (or the datadump): accept_rate, age, answer_count, badge_counts, is_employee, last_modified_date,link, question_count, reputation_change_day,reputation_change_month, reputation_change_quarter, reputation_change_week, reputation_change_year, timed_penalty_date, user_id, user_type.
The field EmailHash is only present in SEDE but its use is deprecated and has no longer functional value. On older Datadumps (before May 2018) you'll also find the
Age field in the Users table. The age field was removed due to GDPR
- Can I get reputation leagues from the data dump as well?
No, not directly, assuming you mean these. You could only get an estimation by creating and running your own query over posts and votes as found in the datadump.