Here is a list of the 'etymology' for the Winter Bash 2017 hats. Everything about the naming (whether related to Stack Exchange mechanics, memes or anything else that isn't obvious to most readers) can be found here. For pictures and a list of criteria, see Winter Bash 2018 Hat list instead.
The list is a community wiki; feel free to edit it if you have more information about a hat. Please keep the list in alphabetical order for easier searching. If you like to do some research, some hats have been featured in earlier editions, so you might be able to find more information the previous installments: