When I'm signed in and try to downvote a question having less than 125 reputation, I get this message:
Thanks for the feedback! Votes cast by those with less than 125 reputation are recorded, but do not change the publicly displayed post score.
According to that dialog, the vote doesn't change the publicly viewable score, but its recorded somewhere.
When I'm not signed in and I try to downvote, it says this:
This action requires 125 reputation.
Setting up an account is free and open to everyone. Set up your account today and earn extra privileges like posting, commenting and voting.
It doesn't say anything about whether or not the vote is recorded.
Do votes get recorded (without changing the public score) even without being signed in?