It's possible for users to have a gold tag badge but not have enough reputation to vote to close, such as if they've given away most of their rep in bounties, or if they started off posting a lot of highly-voted answers but hit the reputation cap, preventing them from earning most of the rep from upvotes and making them stop short of the required 3,000 reputation (out of 10,000, or 10 rep per upvote times 1,000 required upvotes for the badge).
Can such a user single-handedly close questions as duplicates? If they attempt to cast a recommend closure flag as a duplicate, will it be remapped to an immediate closure? Also, can such users use their immediate reopening powers?
Update: After randomly clicking on some posts, I happened to stumble upon this one that states the following:
In the rare cases where you have a gold tag badge, but have not yet unlocked close privileges, a gold tag badge will allow you to work on that subset of questions.
Is this still the case today?