This has been fixed in the latest deploy.
The root cause of this was a change to add more defense-in-depth to login. We've been retiring bits and pieces of OpenID-ish login (which includes our email/password option, for historical reasons) for quite a while, and we moved more bits off of the public internet today - not all of our infrastructure got the memo (in particular parts involved in SO for Teams & Business*) so some logins were failing.
The change was rolled back, and we'll take another whack at it once we've figured out how to get everything on the same page.
*These parts are, for obvious reasons, very paranoid and defensive as they deal with private information.