Where can I see a description of my votes cast like shown in the screenshot?
You can find them at the bottom right of your activity tab - the tab which opens by default if you open your own profile page. For other users, the profile page opens on the profile summary and you have to select the 'activity' tab first.
You've posted quite an old screenshot, you see it looks a bit different nowadays ...
If you want to see all votes instead, use the 'Votes' tab: