In case you weren't aware of this, on any site you're a member of where you think your answer might possibly be located, click the Answers tab. Near the bottom there's a "recently deleted answers" link. If you click on it, you'll see all of your answers that have been deleted within the last 60 days, regardless of who or what did the deletion. I assume this will generally be a fairly short list, so you can search those entries.
Alternatively, if your answer was deleted just within the last few days, since the data for SEDE queries is only updated once a week, on Sunday it seems, you can possibly do a query on this data (see Database schema documentation for the public data dump and SEDE for more info). Otherwise, if your answer was deleted too long ago, I don't know of any specific way for you to do a search of deleted items. The only possible thing I can think of is if you can find some older archive copy of the SE data, where your answer exists but has not yet been deleted, which you can search directly, or download & search on your own machine.