A screenshot from my global inbox:
A post I follow had a comment added onto it which rightly pinged my notifications inbox. I then clicked through to the notification, bringing me to the comment. Within the 5-minute window, the comment was edited by its poster and I received another notification in my inbox (shown above). The comment was not changed in any way that should have affected me (no pings were edited into the comment of any sort).
I thought this was reproduced in the comments under this same post, but that seems to have been deleted or something. Regardless, attempts at reproducing it under the current answer to this question did not work so the current answer would seem to be correct; that there was only a double ping because there were actually two comments (one deleted). So this can be marked status-by-design