One option you have is to somehow resurrect the question, to then delete your answer, to then get the question deleted again. Which requires plenty of effort, and might confuse the people who decided to delete that question (be that the OP owning the question, or curators voting for deletion). You see, "I want to delete an associated answer" isn't in the list of valid reasons to vote for re-opening a closed question. And remember: if deletion happened by curators, there were multiple people, probably first voting for closing, then for deletion.
So, if that really matters that much to you: follow that question, and you should be notified when something changes about it. Then you can still come in and delete your answer.
But yes: your content still exists on deleted questions. Users with 10K+ reputation can look at deleted questions, and they can also see your answer there. But: there is no way for other users to "find" deleted questions easily, as users can't query for them. People can only get to your content when they know the URL and have 10K reputation.
Interestingly enough, that 10K privilege also allows you to edit your own content, at least: you can edit a deleted answer, and probably also an answer on someone else's deleted question.
And of course remember: when you hit the submit button, your content (to a certain degree), from there on, it wasn't no longer "yours". You agreed to the licence model, and that means: you can't just come back and have everything "fully" deleted (easily).