"For budgetary reasons, my development team does not include senior people with broad and in-depth technical knowledge.
As a result of these constraints, I occasionally need to do problem solving on issues that I barely know the key words for in order start researching."
Make your question better by searching on and off of our sites for words related to your area of interest and relevant to your question.
Choose the appropriate programming related site, or search for the site name using the Hamburger, you can also view our list of sites.
Find a site with similar questions and with better answers; the quality of which you would hope for your question, delivered within the timeframe you'd hope that your question would be addressed.
Some sites offer excellent answers quickly, some you may have to wait a few days but actually get a much better answer; unfortunately some sites don't address some categories of questions as well as others, even if it is on-topic on either site.
"In the process, I sometimes ask questions on Stack Exchange for which I get negative feedback in one form or another."
Instead of first thinking that the Feedback is negative try to view it as though it were helpful. Does the commenter or answerer make a fair point? Any rudeness or entirely unhelpful posts can be flagged, helpfulness should be the purpose of any replies.
"Question: Is there a site in the Stack Exchange network where I can answer "less informed" questions (possibly considered "dumb") in order, for example, to just get started on what to specifically research? Or if not in this network, what would you recommend?"
When you are new it is obvious to experienced users, and often people will try to assist newcomers with good questions; some sites have people who go out of their way to spend hours polishing your question until it's a gem, and of great value to future visitors. That is sometimes dependant on the question, could an answer only help you or is it likely to be of value to many people for years to come.
Read the Help (?) for the site chosen, view the per-site-meta for any specific rules about posting question (even answers) on specific sites; not everywhere is identical in what latitude is allowed regarding subjects such as opinion based or list style answers.
Check out these helpful links for basic principles of asking better questions and obtaining more helpful answers, in general; you'll still want to lurk on your chosen site and familiarize yourself with their practices: