I assume this is related... the background colour on the links on the profile page are also missing, so the link is "invisible":
I see this on "most" stack exchange sites (both main site and meta), eg. Webmasters, WebApps, WordPress, Superuser, etc.
But I don't see this on StackOverflow, ServerFault or this Meta site.
It does look like a bizarre "local" caching-type issue, HOWEVER, no amount of clearing the local browser cache (Ctrl+F5, "Disable cache" in dev tools, restart/update browser) resolves this for me on Chrome (Version 92.0.4515.107). BUT a new incognito session on the same browser DOES resolve the issue*1 and using another browser (that I've not used recently) on the same machine DOES resolve the issue. Using another device on the same LAN (again, not used recently) DOES resolve the issue. VPN is disabled in all cases. From the UK.
*1 UPDATE: Behaviour is inconsistent... although I stated above that a "new incognito session" (in Chrome) resolved the issue, after closing that session and opening another new incognito session then the problem returned! Some kind of CDN issue perhaps?