I believe all the badge icons are in SVG format (scaleable vector graphics), which means they can be upscaled without loss of quality (they don't define pixels, but sets of coordinates between which lines or polygons are drawn). The fonts, while they may not be as important anyway and might differ from machine to machine and browser to browser (e.g. in my case (Windows 10/Firefox) Segoe UI Adjusted is used), will scale nicely zooming in in your browser, or you can use an image editor like Photoshop to recreate it.
You can go to your Badges page, use your browser's Inspector to find the file that contains the icon:
In the case shown that's "https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/gaming/img/sprites.svg":
And you can Print Screen it there zoomed in, or download the file and edit it in along with the description in the right font in your favourite image editor software: