I think you can get them back if you get upvoted again before your first accepted answer. I've certainly seen that situation before, where you get 2 rep for the next vote. Once you're actually over 200 for the day, you won't get a downvote loss back - for instance, if you end up on 215 due to an accepted answer, then get a downvote, the only way of rising above 213 is to get another answer accepted.
Whether it's a "bug" or not depends on whether you believe the behaviour has been designed either way. My personal suspicion is that it falls into the category of "stuff which wasn't intentional but isn't serious enough to change."
EDIT: No, I don't believe a rep recalc will do anything to help you here. As I understand it, a rep recalc is effectively a matter of "rerunning history" but only including posts which haven't been deleted or votes that have been cancelled due to vote fraud etc. It doesn't change what happens in terms of the rep limit, as far as I'm aware.