Technically those 12 votes get ignored on the first day, I'm saying are those applied retroactively or not once the answer is accepted.
And they're still ignored later. Once you hit the rep cap for a day, you won't get more rep for votes cast on that day.
If upvotes were "saved up" to be applied later, there wouldn't be a rep cap, it would just be delayed gain.
I now see the problem is you're misinterpreting:
...you can earn a maximum of 200 reputation per day (although accepted answers and bounty awards are immune to this limit).
That should be clarified to say something along the lines of "although the bonuses for getting an answer accepted or earning a bounty are immune to this limit". It's the +15 rep that doesn't count towards the cap, not the votes on the accepted answer.
It's parsed as:
(accepted answers and bounty) awards
(accepted answer awards) and (bounty awards)
Rather than "(accepted answers) and (bounty awards)". Note the change from "answers" to "answer" which could make it harder to understand if you don't know a priori.