Is the Critic badge badge awarded prematurely
The stackoverflow badge critic is awarded as soon as you (accedintly) hit the downvote button. If you correct the downvote and correct it to upvote you keep the critic.
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The site admin has stated multiple times that, by design, badges cannot be lost or revoked, unless they were obtained by cheating.
However, if the criteria for a badge no longer exist — e.g. the post it was awarded for is deleted — the next award of that badge is negated. When badges are awarded, the system checks to see how many you're supposed to have, and only awards new badges when the number of badges you're supposed to have is greater than the number of badges you have.
As an example, suppose one of your answers received 10 up-votes, which caused you to earn the Nice Answer badge. After you have the badge, that same answer is down-voted to a score under 10. The Nice Answer badge is not revoked. However, the next time you have an answer that gets 10 up-votes, you will not earn an additional Nice Answer badge, because the system sees that you already have the number of Nice Answer badges that you should have.