Yesterday a sock puppet upvoted a bunch of my answers, artificially increasing my rep. I was pleased to see that the Anti-Sock Puppet Strike Force detected and canceled this within a few hours. Of some concern to me is that the sock puppet's activity resulted in two extra badges being awarded to me that were not rescinded (Revival and Mortarboard). Of minor concern is that the policing apparently canceled slightly more rep (15 pts) than I could attribute to the puppetry. So, Kojak, if you're out there, please nuke these badges and start checking for badge artifacts in general. I am "curious" about how the rep inaccuracy occurred, but am "personally unconcerned" about such a small amount of rep.
Regular badges are monotonic - they increase, but do not decrease, even if the conditions that gave you a given badge are no longer true.
This is explained in more detail in the Badge FAQ:
The site admin has stated multiple times that, by design, badges cannot be lost or revoked, unless they were obtained by cheating.
However, if the criteria for a badge no longer exist — e.g. the post it was awarded for is deleted — the next award of that badge is negated. When badges are awarded, the system checks to see how many you're supposed to have, and only awards new badges when the number of badges you're supposed to have is greater than the number of badges you have.
As an example, suppose one of your answers received 10 up-votes, which caused you to earn the Nice Answer badge. After you have the badge, that same answer is down-voted to a score under 10. The Nice Answer badge is not revoked. However, the next time you have an answer that gets 10 up-votes, you will not earn an additional Nice Answer badge, because the system sees that you already have the number of Nice Answer badges that you should have.
In certain egregious cases of abuse they may choose to push a full badge recalc on an account, which will reset all badges to what the user's account currently fits, but in general this operation is deemed unnecessary since eventually one might get that extra badge back anyway, and thus is not automated.
One of the reasons minor sock puppet problems do not trigger an automatic badge recalculation is that some badges might be "lost" due to normal processes (downvotes might cause one to lose "good answer" badges, for instance) but the policy is that rather than taking the badge away, you simply do not award it again until they've achieved more than the number they have. It's the equivalent of choosing between letting someone keep a badge they rightfully earned until they pass the threshold to earn it again, or forcibly ripping the badge off their uniform simply because someone downvoted one of their good answers.
If someone is in a state where they have more badges than are currently valid that's ok.
Because it's ok, it's deemed more harmful to remove those badges due to someone else's poor choices. Especially if it ends up removing badges that weren't caused by the actions of the abuser.
In fact, if the process was automated, one could use this system to abuse users by finding people with more badges than what they should have, causing some violence on their posts, thereby forcing a badge recalc.
In other words, you have just forced the system to remove the badges from their uniform despite the policy that badges are kept until they are re-earned.
So the process is not automated, and is only employed in egregious acts of abuse.