One of the comments asked about clarification on why this should be implemented.
SE already has direct links to questions, answers, and comments, but after that, navigation gets fuzzy.
For small posts, this isn't a problem. It's easy to scroll down and find the relevant chunks of information. However, for the bigger ones, where there's lots of text, it's easy to miss parts, or it overall takes time finding the relevant description. For bigger posts, where the user might just be looking for one part of the post, this could also be used to add table of contents (manually - this isn't desired everywhere), or otherwise make jumping to the relevant part easier
The question itself mentions linking straight to a badge description in the badge list, but this can be applied further. One perfect example off the top of my head is the SEDE schema post. Because of the way it's written, it takes a lot of space, and text everywhere makes it hard to navigate.
If this feature request was implemented, users could copy links straight to i.e. ReviewTasks, and the post could get a built-in table of contents, making it easier to navigate when a specific part of that answer is needed elsewhere. This isn't the only post where that applies either. Essentially any of the massive posts, including those in the question, would benefit from direct linking.
I imagine one of the concerns is ID overlap - which is a perfectly valid concern. But if the ID is prepended with the post ID (for an instance, a link to the investor badge in the badge list would look like
A second reason it should be implemented is because even with headers standing out, when there are a lot of them, and a lot of text, it can still be easy to miss them. Especially if there's a mix of several headers (i.e. h1 with h2 and h3 nearby).