List of all badges with full descriptions
Tag-specific badges can be awarded by getting enough upvotes on answers to enough questions with the said tag (e.g. 100 upvotes on at least 20 answers for the bronze badge). But for the badge to be awarded, it must already exist.
This answer claims that the badge is automatically created once someone achieves 400 upvotes in that badge.
However, on security.SE, the rules seem different. For instance, the encryption badge exists but no user has reached 400 upvotes for it yet. Conversely, the hash badge does not exist yet on security.SE, because otherwise I would already have it (237 upvotes on 24 questions). Also, security.SE graduated out of beta recently, so maybe things are different in beta sites.
So, what are the complete rules for specialist badge creation ?